Tag Archive: psychology


Alfred Adler

Learning about Alfred Adler can shed a lot of light on the ideas behind mental health.

Alfred Adler was one of the most prominent pioneers in psychology. He established several theories that are today seen as pillars of psychological thought. Alfred Adler was an important figure in European history because by putting his theories into practice, he influenced European society and the lives of its citizens.

Alfred Adler was born on February 7, 1870, in Vienna, into a large family. A son of a Jewish grain merchant, Adler was a sickly child. His suffering from rickets and pneumonia as a child led him to aspire to become a doctor in order to help others suffering the way he did. As a teenager, he was popular and well-liked, but had trouble academically for a large amount of time. Failing at math, Alfred was suggested by a teacher to drop out of school and pursue a different professional path, such as an apprentice to a cobbler. Alfred’ father, however, disregarded this teacher’s comments, expressing to Alfred how little he valued them. As Alfred began to excel and thus prove this teacher wrong, he rose to the top of his class in mathematics. In 1895, Alfred received his medical degree from the University of Vienna, where he met his wife Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein. They had four children and both eventually became psychiatrists. Alfred was originally an ophthalmologist before turning to psychiatry.

Alfred believed that one of the main goals that people tend to have is to suppress their inferiority in order to reach a feeling superiority. He opined that feelings of inferiority are motivating forces in a person’s behavior, which becomes guided at restraining that feeling of inferiority. The inferiority complex is thus what people develop when they can not compensate for inferior feelings, and this complex makes it difficult for people to cope with problems in life. Adler believed that the drive for superiority is universal among all cultures of the world, although it is expressed in different ways.

Another idea that Adler held was that people can be divided into four types. The ruling type tries to control others. The getting type is passive and normally goes along with the status quo. The avoiding type tries to isolate oneself to avoid defeat. Lastly, the socially useful type aims to have control over one’s life and strives to do good things for the sake of society.

Adler introduced the term “individual psychology” into the psychology lexicon. He studied the motives and drives of the individual, as well as the individual in relation to his or her larger community. He made a specific emphasis on treating a psychological patient as a “whole person”, because he believed that a person is the sum of his or her experiences as well as the various groups that he or she is a part of. Adler ascribed wellness in large part to one’s level of functioning within his or her larger social group.

Adler also did substantial work in the area of personality development. He studied the effects of pampering and neglect on children’s future well-being, as well as birth order. He proposed that children create fictional beliefs about themselves when they are young that are a result of their early experiences. These beliefs then guide the person through life unless they consciously make an effort to teach themselves a different belief about themselves. According to him, children who were born second were better adjusted than those who were born first or last. Children who were the only children in the family had the hardest time adjusting to the outside world.

Adler was arguably the most influential psychologist of his time on European society as a whole. This is because a large part of his studies stressed the importance of communal life and the human need and ability to contribute to the social good. He strongly believed in civil rights, equality, and democracy. He was therefore one of the first practitioners to provide group and family counseling and to use public education to enhance community health. Adler’s experiences serving as a physician in World War I led him to think more about war and social conflict from a psychological perspective. He viewed fascists and other cruel leaders in the wars as misguided individuals with personality dysfunction. These experiences inspired him to open clinics for children in Vienna in 1918 since he believed that such personality problems could best be addressed in childhood. Adler promoted the idea of “social interest”, which refers to belonging and contribution to society, with the belief that such belonging and equality with one’s neighbors could prevent hostility and antagonism largely present in his European world.

A revolutionary in the field of psychology in Europe, Adler split from Freud in order to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory. This was largely because he decided to focus on practical behavior and daily life in order to interpret human character, rather than on the subconscious mind. He influenced notable figures in psychology through this, like Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May. His writings influenced future thinkers in psychology as well. Adler was therefore powerful in European society in that his theories were relevant to many sociological aspects of the culture in which he lived.

One area on which Alfred Adler had influence was feminism. He suggested that women and men are inherently equal, and a major reason that males are often held in higher regard than females is because of the “inferiority complex” that he often discussed. Men are driven, he believed, to assert themselves over women through their aggressive and competitive natures. In his view, women similarly felt a drive to eliminate their feelings of inferiority in a male-dominated society, which the feminist movement was beginning to aid them in doing.

Adler made key contributions to the professional and industrial side of society as well. In 1898, he published the Health Book for the Tailoring Trade, in which he described a psychological approach to problems in the work place. He pushed the medical community to examine how illness among workers in the “cottage industry” could be traced back to working conditions. Understandably, he suggested that treatment should incorporate social factors and changes in working conditions. A result of this book was the passage of several new laws based on his suggestions.

Adler’s opinion on homosexuality provided strong support for the societal view. He viewed homosexuals as in control of their sexuality, having developed an inferiority complex toward their own gender. As did many of his contemporaries, he believed that homosexuality was a flaw and that one could “recover” from it with proper therapy. As such, he voluntarily provided extensive therapy to homosexuals with the goal of “curing” them from this condition.

He also contributed to European society by proposing supposedly successful methods of child-rearing. Since he believed that one of the best ways to ward off potential psychological problems was to provide a nurturing home environment for a child, he held that parents should make their children feel that they are loved and cared for. By the same token, parents were to communicate with their children respectfully and on equal terms, ruling out the harsh punishments and fear of parents that were only beginning to fall out of favor at the time. Lack of such an accepting environment, Adler believed, could lead to rebellion and, in the worst situations, criminal behavior in the child.

Adler made a difference in European society because the ideas that he proposed affected people of all sorts in society. Women, children, workers, and others were helped through the ideas that Adler introduced. As an academic researcher and theorizer, Adler’s contributions to society were essentially indirect. Rather than founding institutions, per say, he brought concepts to the European public that were in some way translated into action either during his time or afterwards. In this way, Adler was able to influence Europe in a distinctive way that not many others could follow.

As I began to pursue this interest in mental health more deeply, I discovered that there are more ways of looking at this field than I had thought possible, and only a multidisciplinary approach at looking at the world of mental health will solve the related problems that are pervasive in today’s world.
A knowledge of the biological bases of behavior is important, showing that much of human behavior is rooted in brain chemistry as well as genetics. It is essential for a modern discussion of mental health to acknowledge the neuroscientific aspects of behavior, for many serious disorders can be treated using medical techniques stemming from this knowledge.
Second, the interplay between culture and mental health should be examined as well. An analysis of the attitudes of different cultures toward mental health will not only broaden perspectives, but will teach people that there is not always one right answer. A major issue in mental health today is the question of “what is considered normal?” A religious belief in one culture may be branded as a bizarre delusion by psychiatrists in another.
It is vital to address the interaction between mental health and aspects of society such as the law, healthcare policy, and education. An overview of the types of professionals that provide mental health services, the most common mental disorders in the United States, and different types of therapy should be explored as well. Importantly, learning about mental health would be incomplete without discussing the stigma surrounding mental health, with a goal of increasing awareness and tolerance.

Nature vs. Nurture

An understanding of psychology’s two-pronged approach at targetting both nature and nurture is fundamental to effectively treating mental disorders. Mental illness is today thought to come as a result of a person’s upbringing and experiences as well as purely biological factors, such as genetics. Such an awareness of the origins of psychiatric disorders will hopefully help destigmatize it among the general population.

A common question related to the field of psychology is simply, what is psychology? Psychology can be defined as the study of the behavior of people. Psychology is the discipline which consists of observations and conclusions in relation to how people act, think, and feel. Psychologists often ask, what makes an individual act a certain way? Is it his or her neural makeup? And if so, what in the brain causes this action or behavior? Is it abnormal levels of neurotransmitters or problems with reception of neurotransmitters? On the other hand, it may very well be psychological circumstances that influence one’s behavior. Perhaps a child who had an experience in his or her earlier years will base his or her future decisions or emotional reactions based on that experience. Or one can argue that a person may have a particular attitude because he or she has been taught to think that way, either by family or by society. This is a major question that psychologists seek to address; and as such, they attribute two major factors to the interpretation of the behavior of people: nature and nurture.

“Nature” is described as the biological causes for one’s behavior. With the advent of the study of neuroscience, we now have a lot of knowledge on the scientific roots of one’s behavior or personality. A person who is depressed, for example, is according to new research, likely to have a smaller hippocampus. Sadder moods may be associated with lower serotonin. People who are more outgoing, on the other hand, may have a larger medial orbitofrontal cortex. People who are motivated may perhaps have more dopamine in their system. Anxiety is often traced to an imbalance of glutamate and GABA, the former of which speeds up processes, both physical and mental, and the latter of which slows them down. In the case of an imbalance between the two, one’s body is constantly on high-activity mode and it is more difficult to calm such a person down. Certain personality traits can be traced down genetically as well. Schizophrenic behavior is often associated with genetics.

However, another major determining factor of people’s behavior is “nurture”, which is the experiences that a person has and how they affect him or her. In other words, this is how a person’s environment shapes him or her. A common psychological technique for treating mental disorders is looking into childhood memories. According to this theory, one develops deeply ingrained beliefs based on which he or she encounters as a child and they must be overcome if they are negative. Peer pressure, the concept of conformity, and other topics of social psychology determine how a person will act. For example, America as a country values individualism, so an American entrepreneur trying to succeed in the ever-competitive world of business isn’t unusual here, due to the values the person has been brought up to embody. However, a personality trait of individuality in more community-oriented countries as one may find in Europe is considered unusual. Here, the person is an individualist because he was grown up to value that trait. As such, a person experiences different things in life and because of them he may shape his behaviors and actions.

Essentially, psychology is both nature and nurture. Neural activity goes on in the brain regardless, but this neural activity which is related to psychology may be either because a person was born with a given brain makeup, or episodes in his or her life have shaped his or her psychology. Not to mention how much information the phenomenon neuroplasticity gives us, which is the idea that combines both nature and nurture together, in that even environmental factors can change a person’s neural activity and brain. This is the essence of psychology- why do we act that way? Both hard science and social science give us the answer. And with this answer we can move on to discover more about ourselves and others, why we are how we are, and how to live and help others, through the right treatment- whether psychological or psychiatric- live with the most optimal psychological health and functioning.

Freud

Freud was the creator of talk-therapy, a type of therapy used today in cases ranging from the mildest to the most acute. Because Freud is such a key player in modern psychology (though some of his ideas were discredited by a number of experts) I have decided to include a paragraph about him.

Sigmund Freud was one of the most prominent psychological theorists of the past century. He was trained as a neurologist but didn’t conform to the ideas of the medical community. He is known for his theories about the unconscious mind and his method of treating patients through psychotherapy, which was essentially talk therapy.  One of his most famous contributions to psychology is that he was the father of psychoanalysis. He tended to tie many psychological problems to sexual issues. He conjectured that there are three parts to a person’s inner conscience. The animalistic side hungry for physical desires is the id. He studied the concept of the libido, meaning people’s instinctual desires. The more self-aware and reality-focused aspect is the ego. Finally, the third facet is the superego, which is the spiritual and higher-thinking side which knows the difference between right and wrong. His interpretation of dreams is another contribution to psychology that he is known for. He believed that a great deal about a person can be discovered by looking into the unconscious. Today, his philosophy is used in some ways and but is rejected in others. Due to his findings in the psychological world, we know many basic tenets of psychology critical to understanding the behavior of people and how we can influence it.

The Importance of Emotion

Life is enriched and shaped by many circumstances and nuances. People experience conflicts, both internal and external, and learn to cope with different situations. People go through adversity and prosperity, success and failure. These fluctuations largely characterize a person, but specifically through the utilization of emotions. Expressing emotions is not only an intrinsic part of the human nature, but is important for a person in numerous ways. Acknowledging, actively experiencing, and healthily releasing emotions is vital to one’s decision-making, communication with others, and well-being on both the physical and psychological levels.

One of the most important reasons for being aware of and healthily using emotions is that it is vital in decision making. A theory in neuroscience known as the Somatic Marker Hypothesis states that the role of emotions in decision making is based extensively in the biology of the brain. When one needs to make complex decisions in which cognitive reasoning isn’t enough, somatic markers, which are associations between reinforcing stimuli in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that induce a connected physiological affective state, help guide the decision-making process. This is because when one thinks about the consequences of his or her decisions, the reward and punishment centers in the brain are activated (Damasio 4). Emotions are one’s subjective way of viewing the world, and these subjective attitudes help a person make decisions based on what he or she feels is right, using intuition. Acknowledging all kinds of emotions and healthily expressing them is crucial, because if they are expressed in an unhealthy way or if they are disregarded, a person may make harmful decisions more readily. Anxiety, for example, is sometimes an important driving force in taking precautions. The adrenaline rush, caused by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, that one feels when one is driving too fast will cause him or her to slow down, which is a protection from a crash and likely injury (Wehrenberg 77). By the same token, the fear someone may have about getting sunburned will presumably cause that person to put on suntan lotion, which will shield the skin from physical harm. However, it is important for people to not let certain emotional responses steer their decisions away from their true intentions, so it is important to channel the emotions in the right way. Thus, anger can be viewed in a positive way in that one can express it by proactively trying to solve the problem that is making him or her angry (APA 1). According to Kevin N. Ochsner and Lisa Feldman Barrett, “Our bottom-up emotional responses are not always appropriate for every situation, and effective emotion regulation involves both the active modification of these prepotent responses, as well as the active use of emotional responses to guide judgment and decision-making” (Neuroscience of Emotion 4). Using emotions in the decision-making process is fundamental to making worthwhile and personally relevant decisions.

Utilizing one’s emotions in a healthy and productive way is very beneficial in communication. In one study done using an fMRI, participants were given short written sentences conveying real life situations. They were asked to imagine how they would feel in those situations, as well as how their mothers would feel in them. The fMRIs showed activation in the frontopolar cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the right inferior parietal lobule of the participants, areas that are involved in the processes of perspective-taking and relating to others (Decety 55). Therefore, people who feel deeply can empathize more easily with others, consequently connecting with them that way (Decety 55).

Emotions draw people closer in their relationships; emotions are something people have in common. Channeling emotions appropriately contributes to positive interaction. Although negative emotions like anger are legitimate and acceptable to feel, controlling the expression of such emotions in the presence of people helps relationships to run more smoothly. According to Jean Decety, “It has been demonstrated that individuals who can regulate their emotions are more likely to experience empathy and to act in morally desirable ways with others” (Decety 57). Knowledge of how to behave around different types of people with respect to the emotions expressed around them is an aid in maintaining the appropriate relationship with each person. For example, excitement and happiness about one’s endeavors are most fitting to be conveyed to close friends, as opposed to mere acquaintances. Therefore, being emotionally receptive can contribute to a person’s empathy towards others, which is essential for understanding and connecting with others.

Healthily releasing and experiencing emotion is very important for one’s physical and emotional well-being.  Finding a healthy way to release emotion is beneficial to a person, while unhealthy ways of dealing with emotion, such as drugs and alcohol, are physically harmful. It is accordingly imperative upon one to find a healthy outlet to deal with his or her feelings, such as writing in a journal or talking to somebody about their feelings. Alcohol is an especially deleterious way to deal with negative feelings because not only can it lead to long-term consequences for the development of the brain, but it chemically removes perception of emotion so that a person can’t experience the emotion and can’t make healthy decisions based on this emotion. Several recent scientific studies correlate stress with atrophy of a section of the brain called the hippocampus, which is required for memory and cognition. Prolonged exposure to stress affects this area of the brain detrimentally, by secreting glucocorticoids, a specific type of steroid hormone, in abnormally high amounts (Sapolsky 1). Due to this, prolonged and chronic stress can weaken the immune system and cause fatigue and other illness. Emotions also contribute to psychological health. Acknowledging and experiencing negative emotion, as opposed to denying it, helps one to move forward and live fully. For this reason, contrary to the fad of “positive thinking” in pop psychology, constant optimism can be detrimental to a person. According to a study made by University of Pennsylvania psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman and Brandeis University psychologist Derek Isaacowitz, “pessimists were less prone to depression than were optimists after experiencing negative life events” (Lilienfeld 65). This is because pessimists are more likely to acknowledge and feel their sadness than are optimists, and therefore can move on more easily from these difficult experiences. Resilience is not defined by being happy at all costs, but rather by experiencing necessary feelings in their due time and bouncing back. This is the essence of experiencing emotion; each emotion is legitimate and should be experienced appropriately when necessary- and different combinations of emotions and their expression are what add a distinct flavor to each person. Emotions lead to self-awareness and uniqueness of the individual. One of the contributing factors to emotional responses is semantic memory, a form of long-term memory associated with meanings, ideas and concepts.  People have different semantic knowledge from one another because they have and had different experiences, and these differences in semantic knowledge contribute to the emotions that people tend to experience and ways in which they cope with these emotions (Ochsner 17). Furthermore, deeply feeling towards something shows a care and dedication to it. Therefore, emotions are a sincere way of showing love and appreciation towards people and towards other enterprises that a person is committed to. After all, if a person didn’t feel such a connection to whatever enterprise or person that may be, they wouldn’t take issues in relation to them so personally that they would feel strong emotions about them. Every person is prone to different emotional reactions and has predispositions to certain emotions over other emotions. Consciousness of which emotions one is susceptible to allows for greater predictability in how a person will act in contact with different triggers. It is these emotional differences, and varying methods of expressing them relative to the person’s preferences, that make each individual unique.

Emotions affect nearly every aspect of a person, from physical health to reasoning to social interaction. As we can deduce from Figure 1, when one experiences an emotion, the body responds in ways such as increasing blood pressure and heart rate, while the person has the choice of whether to express the emotion in a healthy or unhealthy way; and at the same time these emotions are effecting some decision to be made at that very moment and consequently defining who the person is (Kuhn 1). Therefore, to fully live life, one needs to be aware of his or her emotions and use them in a way that not only benefits him or her psychologically, but also helps him or her to make decisions and characterizes him or her as a person. Emotions show what a person is dedicated to, and the expression of them contributes enormously to a person’s mental health as well as physical health. Emotions guide a person, but at the same time the person guides his or her emotions. Every page of life is a new adventure, but it is our emotions that paint this adventure in the colors of our souls.

 

WORKS CITED

 

1. Damasio, Antonio R. “The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and the Possible Functions of the  Prefrontal Cortex.” Department of Neurology: Division of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Iowa College of Medicine (n.d.): 1-8. Web. 10 June 2012.

 

2. Wehrenberg, Margaret. The 10 Best-Ever Anxiety Management Techniques. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2008.

 

3. “Controlling Anger — Before It Controls You.” American Psychological Association, APA, n.d. Web. 10 June 2012.

 

4. Decety, Jean, and Philip Jackson. “A Social-Neuroscience Perspective on Empathy. Current Directions in Psychological Science.” University of Iowa (n.d.):  1-5. Web. 10 June 2012.

 

5. Sapolsky, Robert M. “Why Stress Is Bad for Your Brain.” Science- From AAS. American Association for the Advancement of Science (n.d.): 1. Web. 10 June 2012.

 

6. Lilienfeld, Scott O., and Hal Arkowitz. “Can Positive Thinking Be Negative?” Scientific American: Mind May/June 2011: 64-65. Print.

 

7. “Mind Map.” Map. Filmic Texts and the Rise of the Fifth Estate. International Journal of Learning and Media. 06 June 2012. Web. 10 June 2012.

 

8. Ochsner, Kevin N., and Lisa Feldman Barrett. “A Multiprocess Perspective on the Neuroscience of Emotion.” NEUROSCIENCE OF EMOTION; Stanford University (n.d.): 1-68. Web. 10 June 2012.

Think of a person who has a disease. Maybe you imagine a person in a hospital gown for whom surgery is imminent.  Or you might, perhaps, picture somebody with cancer about to receive chemotherapy treatment. Now, imagine a healthy person approaching one of these unfortunate individuals who has been plagued by an illness. He or she will most likely treat the ill patient with sympathy and respect, feeling sad for this individual who is fighting such an illness. However, there are people with certain illnesses who are less likely to receive this respect. These are the individuals who are the victims of neurological and mental illnesses.

Why are people suffering from mental and neurological conditions prone to being treated with so much disrespect? Only because we cannot see the physical effects of the sufferers’ diseases on their bodies, does it mean that they are not suffering from a disease? The brain, just like nearly any other organ in the body, is capable of being diseased, whether the disease is congenital or begins to manifest itself during the person’s life (Silton, et al., 2011). It is illogical then to refer to patients with diseases such as Autism and Down’s syndrome with slurs, when we would never think to degrade a heart-disease patient in such a manner. The difference is only the body part which is diseased, but the offense towards the neurological or psychiatric patient is much higher.

Unfortunately, oftentimes today, although much less than in the past, patients who suspect to suffer from, or even those who are already diagnosed with, a mental illness are treated with various sorts of stigma (Martinez et al., 2011). This stigma can be directed to patients afflicted with mental and neurological illnesses of all severities, ranging from relatively milder conditions like mild mood disorders to disorders with higher severity, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (Martinez et al., 2011). Although today it is proven scientifically that a mental illness is a real ailment of the body, there are people who still dismiss the concept of mental illness as unreal and illegitimate (Martinez et al., 2011). These people often believe that mental illness is an apologetic label for a problem that one can solve on his or her own (Silton, et al., 2011). Thus, one of the most detrimental types of stigma is the hostility and social rejection a patient may receive from his or her family and others who are close to him or her. Family and close friends can view a mental illness of someone close to them as an exaggeration of a problem, and in turn, may prevent that person from receiving help, especially younger patients who are not yet self-sufficient (Perlick et al., 2011). This stigma can even inhibit patients from recovering (Wahl, 2011). This lack of sensitivity may also be prevalent in the school setting. Students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder may be mocked by students or may be indirectly offended by those teachers who tend to favor students’ intelligence over hard work, thus putting the learning-disabled students, who may work the hardest, at the bottom of the spectrum (Silton, et al., 2011). Similarly, even polite people sometimes make jokes involving psychiatric wards and “insane” asylums (Silton, et al., 2011). These are derogatory and should simply not be made.

There are laws in the United States against discrimination. These laws affect individuals with intellectual and mental disabilities, in addition to those with any other disabilities and generally people of any race, religion, gender, or lifestyle (Womenshealth.gov, 2010). A major law that protects the rights of such people is the American Disabilities Act (Womenshealth.gov, 2010). The implication of this law within the parameters of mental illness is the prohibition of patients with mental illness to be treated any differently than other people, unless there is a medical or practical reason. Our society has extended these ideas to make a mutual effort as a society to stop the use of slurs. While many words are widely accepted as derogatory, and there has been a significant decline in the past years of usage of debasing words of racial and religious nature among educated people, there is one word carelessly thrown around that may be equally offensive, if not more so. This is the word “retarded”.  The word “retarded” is said very often these days, often without thinking of its meaning (Special Olympics 2011, 2011). Many people— especially, but not exclusively, youth— use this word to mean “stupid” or “dense” when referring to either a person or even an object. The root of the word retarded is ­-tard- , which in Latin means “slow” or “late”. Those with neurological disorders which affect their cognition, behavior, and social aptitude were originally referred to as having “mental retardation” (Special Olympics 2011, 2011). Due to the offensive misuse of this term, it is being replaced with other terms, such as “intellectual disability” (Special Olympics 2011, 2011). Patients were called retarded because they or their brains were developing slower than a normal human is supposed to develop. Many people, however, don’t even think of this. It frequently doesn’t come to the mind of ordinary people that they are blessed with the health that they have and that there are those less fortunate who are slower in developing.  However, even though there are many who are aware of the hurt that they are causing by using this word, they are too indifferent to stop this behavior. For this reason, the “R-Word” Campaign, which is sponsored by Special Olympics, Inc. and is aimed to prevent people from using the word “retarded”, was started (Special Olympics 2011, 2011).

Therefore, it is our job to treat neurological and psychiatric patients with the respect that they deserve. It is not okay to debase and humiliate patients who are already dealing with many challenges and for many of whom it is nearly impossible to participate in a normal life. Rather, we should look at them with admiration for what they are trying to make out of their somewhat limiting lives. Whether it is an intellectually disabled student working hours to achieve academically, or an ambitious Special Olympics athlete, or a teen with Asperger’s Disorder making a large effort to learn social skills and make friends, we should be proud of them for what they have accomplished and what they continue to accomplish. By changing our speech and attitude, we can influence those around us to also change their speech and attitude to respectful, rather than demeaning, of sufferers of mental or neurological disease.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wahl, O. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to recovery from mental illness. Trends in Cognitive     Sciences, Volume 16, Issue, 1 9-10. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136466131100235X.

 

Martinez, A., et al. (2011). Mental Illness Diagnoses, Ascribed Humanity, and Social Rejection. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2011, 1-23. Retrieved from http://guilfordjournals.com/doi/pdf/10.1521/jscp.2011.30.1.1.

Perlick, D., et al. (2011). In Our Own Voice–Family Companion: Reducing Self-Stigma of Family Members of Persons with Serious Mental Illness. NAMI of Connecticut, 1-3. Retrieved from http://namiofconnecticut.com/uploads/perlick.pdf.

Womenshealth.gov, an affiliate of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Mental Health: Americans with Disabilities Act and Mental Illness. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/mental-health/your-rights/americans-disability-act.cfm.

Silton, et al. (2011). Stigma in America: Has Anything Changed?: Impact of Perceptions of Mental Illness and Dangerousness on the Desire for Social Distance: 1996 and 2006. Volume 199, Issue 6, 361-366. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Abstract/2011/06000/Stigma_in_America_Has Anything_Changed_Impact.1.aspx.

Special Olympics 2011. (2011). WHY PLEDGE: What is the R-word and Why is its Use a Problem? The Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation for the Benefit of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.r-word.org/r-word-why-pledge.aspx.